Features of Research Participants
The characteristics of the 102,216 participants are shown in Table 1 , and in Tables S2 and S3 in the Supplementary Appendix. Mean sodium excretion was estimated to be 4.93±1.73 g, and mean potassium excretion was estimated to be 2.12±0.60 g, with higher excretion in men than in women (P<0.001 for sodium and potassium).
Patterns off Salt and you may Potassium Excretion
Observed excretion from fast day urine sample and you may estimated “usual” removal (immediately after modifications to own regression dilution bias) get. Getting observed removal, the latest suggest (±SD) sodium excretion are 4.93±step one.73 grams just about every day; step 3.3% out-of players had sodium excretion from below 2.30 g on a daily basis, and you may 0.6% of people had salt excretion away from less than step 1.50 grams on a daily basis. To have estimated usual removal, the fresh new imply sodium removal is 4.90±step one.17 grams just about every day; 0.2% away from participants had salt removal off less than dos.30 g just about every day, and you will none got salt excretion away from below step one.fifty grams daily.
Overall, 43.5% of the population had an estimated sodium excretion of more than 5 g per day, 45.9% between 3 and 5 g per day, and 10.6% less than 3 g per day (3.3% had an excretion <2.3 g per day, and 0.6% <1.5 g per day). After adjustment for regression dilution bias, 2.1% of participants had an estimated sodium excretion of less than 3 g per day, and only 0.2% had excretion of less than 2.3 g per day ( Figure 1A ). Overall, 7.9% of participants had an estimated potassium excretion of more than 3 g per day ( Figure 1B ).
Estimated sodium excretion was higher in rural areas than in urban areas (P<0.001), whereas estimated potassium excretion was higher in urban areas (P<0.001) (Tables S2 and S3 in the Supplementary Appendix). Per capita gross national income was inversely associated with estimated sodium excretion and positively associated with estimated potassium excretion (P<0.001 for trends). Mean estimated sodium excretion ranged from 3.78 g per day in Malaysia to 5.59 g per day in China. Mean estimated potassium excretion ranged from 1.70 g per day in South Asia (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan) to 2.46 g per day in Canada and Europe (Poland and Sweden).
Urinary Salt Removal and you may Blood pressure levels
Changes in hypertension are shown for sodium excretion of smaller than simply step three g each day herpes dating sites review, excretion out-of 3 to 5 g a day, and you may excretion of more than 5 g a day. People with most low otherwise quite high salt excretion are included regarding the figure. Inside Asia, 218 persons having removal away from below 2 g a-day was basically within the category which have removal from 2.00 to 2.99 g daily, and you will 482 persons having excretion in excess of 11 g each big date have been included in the classification with removal away from grams or a lot more each day. Far away, 235 people that have excretion out-of nine.00 in order to nine.99 g every day and you may 112 individuals with removal away from ten g or even more each and every day were within the group having excretion of 8.00 to 8.99 g each and every day. I bars suggest 95% confidence times.
After adjusting for covariates, we found a significant positive association between estimated sodium excretion and systolic blood pressure (P<0.001 for trend) and between estimated sodium excretion and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001 for trend) ( Figure 2A and 2B ). For each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion, there was an increment of 1.46 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (P<0.001) and an increment of 0.54 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001). After correcting for regression dilution bias and adjusting for covariates, we observed a steeper slope (a larger increment in blood pressure for a 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion) for the association between estimated usual sodium excretion and blood pressure, with an increment of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram and an increment of 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure per gram (P<0.001 for both comparisons).